Even before the war, crossing Ukraine’s border with the EU was not a pleasant experience for tourists and businesses. The war has intensified the problems, as the western land border has become a bottleneck for passengers and cargo. As a result, queues at the border and related infrastructure problems remain a challenge for Ukraine and its western neighbors.
The war caught Ukrainian customs in the process of reform. Before the war, the customs service in Ukraine was reformed in several stages. Some results have been achieved, although the main challenges, corruption, and inconsistent regulatory enforcement, still need to be overcome.