War and conflict have devastating consequences for societies, leaving behind destruction, human suffering, and long-lasting negative impacts. Countries with a history of war offer valuable lessons on how to address and mitigate these impacts. By examining their experiences, policymakers can gain insight into effective strategies to rebuild shattered societies, promote reconciliation, ensure justice, and foster peace.

In the aftermath of the outbreak of the full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the European Union (EU) has been facing the consequences of its misguided policy decisions from decades ago. Doing ‘business as usual’ with Russia, a country whose values are fundamentally different from those of the Western nations’, is always dangerous and may seem reckless.