The true budget deficit at the end of 2023 will amount to over 206 billion PLN. The budget debate taking place in Sejm is based on the draft budget, which does not show the full picture of state’s expenditures and revenues. Pursuant to the Public Finance Act, the management of public funds is open and transparent.
In response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the Polish Law and Justice government began to work on creating two new funds in the state-owned Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego to finance “systemic aid” and additional military spending.
“The income tax rate could be reduced to 13-15%, sending all income tax to local governments and reducing labor taxes” suggested the Minister of Finance Keit Pentus-Rosimannus (Reform) on Monday. Writing on social media, the minister said this move would help local governments to finance maintenance and care costs. She also wrote that Estonian labor taxes are too high while health care and social care costs need to be better funded in an aging society.
Prior to the crisis triggered by the COVID-19 outbreak, the Lithuanian economy had been enjoying a rapid growth. Yet, while the number of available jobs had been increasing, the number of unemployed had remained steadily high.
With a sample of 4,000 Slovak students, the Economics Olympiad revealed the most serious weaknesses in economic education of young people. Memorizing is believed to be a long-term problem, but knowledge useful only as a part of quiz shows remains a crucial element of the Slovak education system.
As many as 81% of Lithuanians find their knowledge of economics insufficient. Making economic decisions at every step of the way, Lithuanians compare their understanding of economics to that of physics or political sciences, but find themselves less confident in economics than in computer literacy or mathematics.
Governments spend financial resources on various functions ranging from healthcare to social protection to education to defence and others. Inevitably, a part of public finance is allocated to the functioning of the bureaucratic system because general public services are necessary for other public services to exist.