For states and state economies to function properly in face of ageing European societies, it is crucial to develop a social system and an economic structure that can keep pace with – or even positively influence – demographic trends. Emigration, brain drain, depopulation, labor shortages, or ageing are all effects to which the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) must find appropriate responses.

The introduction of the controversial 500+ program in Poland has so far resulted in no increase in fertility rate. Noteworthy, 12% of the program budget would be sufficient to eliminate extreme child poverty. Meanwhile, 100,000 women were pushed out of the labor market.