“As nationalism, authoritarianism, and populism strengthen in many countries around the world, it is becoming more important than ever to measure human freedom and the central role it plays in human progress”, said Vasquez. “The declining performance of the United States, once considered the bastion of liberty, is worrisome”.


Sanders’ speeches reveal that his doctrine rests on three premises and two institutional requirements. The premises are: (1) a just society based on the equality of outcome exists and is desirable, (2) human reason can discover the rules required to bring about such a society, and (3) the political elite should enforce those formal rules from the top-down.